Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is a chronic skin condition characterized by areas of blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, greasy skin, and possibly scarring.
Acne mostly affects skin with a greater number of oil glands; including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. During puberty in both sexes, acne is often brought on by an increase in androgens such as testosterone. Genetics is estimated to be the cause of 80% of cases. The role of diet as a cause is unclear.
Acne scars are the result of inflammation within the dermal layer of skin brought on by acne and are estimated to affect 95% of people with acne vulgaris. The scar is created by an abnormal form of healing following this dermal inflammation. Atrophic acne scars are the most common type of acne scar and have lost collagen from this healing response.
Androgenic alopecia (also known as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia androgenetica, or male pattern baldness) is hair loss that occurs due to an underlying susceptibility of hair follicles to androgenic miniaturization. It is the most common cause of hair loss and will affect up to 70% of men and 40% of women at some point in their lifetimes. Men typically present with hairline recession at the temples and vertex balding, while women normally diffusely thin over the top of their scalps.
It is mainly end organ hyper-reactivity to Dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Both genetic and environmental factors also play a role, and many etiologies remain unknown.